July 15, 2017
Shawn Bumpers / General
The author of this Epistle is not known.
There are hints that it may have been Paul
Acts 18:24 NKJV
Now a certain Jew named Apollos, born at Alexandria, an eloquent man and mighty in the Scriptures, came to Ephesus.
Acts 18:28 NKJV
for he vigorously refuted the Jews publicly, showing from the Scriptures that Jesus is the Christ.
Martin Luther was sure Apollos was the author of the letter to the Hebrews.
2 Timothy 3:16–17 NKJV
All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness, that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly equipped for every good work.
Written prior to AD 70 – sacrifices that were going on in the Temple.
Written with the Jewish believers living in the Roman Empire in mind.
Jewish believers living outside of Israel, between 64 AD and 70 AD who were tempted with backsliding.
Opened with the “betterness” of Christ.
Hebrews 11:40 NIV84
God had planned something better for us so that only together with us would they be made perfect.
Christ being better than the angels.
The reason was that people came to think of the angels as intermediaries between God and human beings.
Forefathers and the prophets all pointed to Christ.
Encourage the readers to pay attention to God’s Word and obey it.
Dia houtos “for this reason.”
It’s a word which began to be spoken by the Lord at the beginning.
The Word spoken by the Son … was Salvation.
So, the danger here is that of neglecting our salvation.
In all probability you were at first established on the words of the Son regarding Salvation.
But the danger is spelled out in verse 1 here … “drifting away.”
Hebrews 6:19 NKJV
This hope we have as an anchor of the soul, both sure and steadfast, and which enters the Presence behind the veil,
Many of us might have the idea that believers today who are “under grace” escape the chastening hand of God that was so evident “under Law.”
But to whom much is given, much shall be required.
Romans 8:16 NKJV
The Spirit Himself bears witness with our spirit that we are children of God,
The Old Testament declared that God’s people would reign with Him in the world to come.
So, the author now sets out to prove this point with scripture …
Greek word βραχύς brachys – “a short time” and so it could be more clearly translated “a little while.”
Hebrews 2:8 NKJV
You have put all things in subjection under his feet.” For in that He put all in subjection under him, He left nothing that is not put under him. But now we do not yet see all things put under him.
Verse 9 puts a wonderful spin on it saying, “But we see Jesus!” (Heb. 2:9)
He is God’s answer to our trouble.
1 Corinthians 15:45–48 NKJV
And so it is written, “The first man Adam became a living being.” The last Adam became a life-giving spirit. However, the spiritual is not first, but the natural, and afterward the spiritual. The first man was of the earth, made of dust; the second Man is the Lord from heaven. As was the man of dust, so also are those who are made of dust; and as is the heavenly Man, so also are those who are heavenly.
Adam was the first man who was created and he was created out of the dust of the earth.
His nature was that of a human with the possibility to obey or disobey God.
Ephesians 1:20–23 NKJV
which He worked in Christ when He raised Him from the dead and seated Him at His right hand in the heavenly places, far above all principality and power and might and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this age but also in that which is to come. And He put all things under His feet, and gave Him to be head over all things to the church, which is His body, the fullness of Him who fills all in all.
Christ is not only the Last Adam, but He is also the Captain of salvation.
Captain is ἀρχηγός archēgos – literally means “Trailblazer”
τελειόω teleioō meaning “complete, effective, adequate.”
Fulfilled in Jesus.
He has gone on ahead, but His work will yet be fulfilled in the sanctification of the righteous.
To do this, Christ gave up His glory to become man.
He regained His glory when He arose and ascended to heaven.
John 17:22–24 NKJV
And the glory which You gave Me I have given them, that they may be one just as We are one: I in them, and You in Me; that they may be made perfect in one, and that the world may know that You have sent Me, and have loved them as You have loved Me. “Father, I desire that they also whom You gave Me may be with Me where I am, that they may behold My glory which You have given Me; for You loved Me before the foundation of the world.
“Are all of one.”
Isaiah 8:17–18 from the LXX.
There is a Jewish interpretive principle called Gezerah Shavah in which texts with the same key word might be linked.
Isaiah 28:16 NKJV
Therefore thus says the Lord God: “Behold, I lay in Zion a stone for a foundation, A tried stone, a precious cornerstone, a sure foundation; Whoever believes will not act hastily.
Psalm 118:22 NKJV
The stone which the builders rejected Has become the chief cornerstone.
Isaiah 8:14 NKJV
He will be as a sanctuary, But a stone of stumbling and a rock of offense To both the houses of Israel, As a trap and a snare to the inhabitants of Jerusalem.
Psalm 22:1 NKJV
My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me? Why are You so far from helping Me, And from the words of My groaning?
The necessity of the Incarnation.
(1) In verse 14 … By becoming human the Son sought to “Destroy him who had the power of death, that is, the devil.”
(2) In verse 15 … By becoming human the Son sought to liberate, “Those who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage.”
καταργέω katargeo: “To render inoperative or ineffective.”
John 8:44 NKJV
You are of your father the devil, and the desires of your father you want to do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and does not stand in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaks a lie, he speaks from his own resources, for he is a liar and the father of it.
Romans 6:23 NKJV
For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.
The author comes back to what he was saying earlier … about the gospel not being for angels.
And this is something that the author expects his readers to already know.
Hebrews 5:12 NKJV
For though by this time you ought to be teachers, you need someone to teach you again the first principles of the oracles of God; and you have come to need milk and not solid food.
Romans 4:16 NKJV
Therefore it is of faith that it might be according to grace, so that the promise might be sure to all the seed, not only to those who are of the law, but also to those who are of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all
Transitions to the central theme of Jesus as High Priest which will start in chapter 4 and go through to chapter 10.
Some “theme words” in these 2 verses that we will see much of starting with chapter 4.
Hebrews 5:1 NKJV
For every high priest taken from among men is appointed for men in things pertaining to God, that he may offer both gifts and sacrifices for sins.
He was made like His brethren … He is able to be a merciful and faithful High Priest.
But what happens when we who have been saved are tempted to sin?
This is such great news … He stands ready to help us!
The difference between the Lord’s ministry as High Priest and His ministry as Advocate.
As our High Priest, our Lord is able to give us grace to keep us from sinning when we are tempted.
1 Corinthians 10:13 NKJV
No temptation has overtaken you except such as is common to man; but God is faithful, who will not allow you to be tempted beyond what you are able, but with the temptation will also make the way of escape, that you may be able to bear it.
Hebrews 4:15–16 NKJV
For we do not have a High Priest who cannot sympathize with our weaknesses, but was in all points tempted as we are, yet without sin. Let us therefore come boldly to the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy and find grace to help in time of need.
1 John 1:9 NKJV
If we confess our sins, He is faithful and just to forgive us our sins and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness.